Tag Archives: evidence-based therapy

What Causes Anxiety?

We’ve all experienced it before: the nervous feeling that comes with different life situations. Whether you’re about to go on stage for a presentation or take on your first day at a new job, you may notice some symptoms of anxiety. But what if these feelings have become consistent? What if you feel scared all the time? There are a few different types of anxiety with various sources, so let’s look at each to help you understand where those feelings are coming from.

Types of Anxiety Disorders

What differentiates uneasy feelings from a mental health disorder is often the duration of symptoms. An anxiety disorder creates consistent feelings of nervousness either regardless of the circumstance or in response to specific situations. Diagnosable anxiety disorders listed in the DSM-5 include:

  • Generalized Anxiety Disorder
  • Panic Disorder
  • Specific Phobias
  • Social Anxiety Disorder
  • Separation Anxiety

Each of these are linked to similar symptoms, like feeling restless, fidgeting, increased heart rate, and an impaired level of functioning. However, the causes of each condition can differ. 

What Causes Anxiety?

While there is not a current consensus on the causes of such conditions within the psychological research community, there are some sources or situations that we know can contribute to a diagnosis of an anxiety disorder. 

Life circumstances are often an indicator of anxiety. For example, a child who grows up in an unstable home might react to the lack of consistency by developing separation anxiety. In their need for security, they attempt to cling to sources of comfort and can exhibit symptoms when they are not around their chosen comfort source. Generalized anxiety disorder and panic disorder can also develop as a result of life circumstances. Constant changes in a home can make someone more sensitive to differences in routine, resulting in feelings of distress.

Another influential factor for anxiety is a triggering life event. Phobias and social anxiety disorder can develop due to a negative experience a person has in a specific situation. For example, someone who was bitten by a spider and ended up in the hospital could develop arachnophobia: an overwhelming fear of spiders. Social anxiety disorder can develop if a person had an embarrassing moment in front of a group of people, which in turn brings on feelings of distress in social situations. 

Finally, researchers believe genetics can make a person more susceptible to developing an anxiety disorder. It’s not uncommon to see such conditions develop in multiple members of a family, and research has shown there is a genetic component to anxiety. That, in combination with environmental factors, can increase the likelihood that someone will develop an anxiety disorder. 

Mental Health Treatment in Orange County, CA

If you are experiencing symptoms of anxiety, regardless of the cause, PACE Recovery Center can help. Our treatment model, designed specifically for men, utilizes evidence-based practices to help determine the source of your anxiety and develop healthy coping skills to alleviate symptoms. We offer outpatient treatment to fit with your schedule or residential treatment for a higher level of support. Contact us today to learn more about our services.

Addiction Medicine Pioneer Leaves Lasting Impressions

addiction

Addiction medicine is – in the grand scheme of things – a relatively new field. The transition from seeing use disorders as a choice or worse a sin, one commonly made by those with shortages in moral fiber for instance, to that of a disease can be traced to the middle of the 20th century.

The first Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders or DSM treated substance use disorder (i.e., “drug addiction” and “alcoholism”) as most commonly arising from a primary personality disorder. As you can probably imagine, the previous action stigmatized addiction by listing it with other societally disapproved disorders. In 1965, the American Medical Association (1965) recognized alcoholism, declaring the condition a medical disorder. The DSM-II (1968) encouraged separate diagnoses for alcoholism and drug addiction, according to the US National Library of Medicine. The DSM would make several changes over the years regarding how scientists and the medical community conceptualized unhealthy relationships with drugs and alcohol.

  • DSM-III (1980): adopted atheoretical, descriptive diagnoses but required tolerance or withdrawal to diagnose dependence.
  • DSM-III-R (1987): included physiological and behavioral symptoms and reflected the substance dependence syndrome.
  • DSM-IV (1994): the concept of dependence was unchanged, i.e., emphasis on biology.>/li.
  • DSM-V (2013): declares that all substances taken in excess activate the brain reward system.

Pioneers In Addiction Medicine and Recovery

The criteria for addiction have evolved over the years and so have the modalities of treatment. Such changes are owed to the tireless work put in by several individuals, perhaps too many to list. In the 19th Century, an 1849 essay titled Alcoholismus Chronicus, by Swedish physician Magnus Huss gave birth to the disease model. Huss’ essay defines the characteristics of alcoholism (a brand-new term at the time) as disease-like in nature; one that causes severe physical harm and can be fatal. Another body of work of note is E.M. Jellinek’s The Disease Concept of Alcoholism, which splits alcohol addiction into several stages.

In the field of recovery and use disorder treatment, some people come to mind often. Bill Wilson is a notable name, being a co-founder of Alcoholics Anonymous in the 1930s; a program that relies on addressing the spiritual side of the disease. While 12 Step programs are not scientific, many treatment centers utilize them along with other forms of therapy, such as cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). Nora Volkow is someone who is worth mentioning as she heads up the National Institute On Drug Abuse (NIDA). There are also other names that most people have not heard – even those who work in the field today – whose contributions to addiction medicine deserve mention.

Dr. Herbert D. Kleber is one person who deserves recognition, especially in light of his recent passing. It’s fair to say that most Americans are unfamiliar with Dr. Kleber, even those who have undergone treatment in centers that utilize evidence-based methods. A researcher in the pathology of addiction, Dr. Kleber worked to develop evidence-based techniques to ease the discomfort of withdrawal, The New York Times reports. He also focused on helping such people avoid relapse and achieve long-term recovery.

Evidence Based Therapy

Upon completing his medical residency, Kleber went on to volunteer for the United States Public Health Service. His service took him to Public Health Service Prison Hospital (PHSPH) at Lexington, Ky. in 1964, roughly a year before the AMA’s recognizing alcoholism as a medical disorder. The PHSPH was a jail treating addicts and alcoholics, as part of the Addiction Research Center, NIDA’s predecessor.

Dr. Kleber understood that people with use disorders did not deserve punishment, according to the article. He would instead take a scientific approach; the doctor was instrumental in making the study of addiction into a discipline.

He was at the vanguard of bringing scientific rigor to the area of addiction,” said Dr. Frances R. Levin, director of the division on substance use disorders at Columbia University Medical Center, a program started by Dr. Kleber.

Over the decades, Kleber would continue to influence the field; he started and oversaw the drug dependence unit at Yale, the article reports. With his wife, he founded the division on substance use disorder at Columbia. Kleber was also a co-founder of the National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse, now the Center on Addiction. He served as deputy to the Nation’s first drug czar during the George H.W. Bush administration. However, his dismay with the “war on drugs” and the lack of funding going towards addiction treatment led to his resignation. At his confirmation, someone asked how he remained optimistic working with addicts; responding by quoting the Talmud he said:

The day is short. The task is difficult. It is not our duty to finish it, but we are forbidden not to try.”

Addiction Treatment

In 2015, Dr. Kleber said, “the last thing in the world I wanted to do was to treat addiction.” It is hard to imagine what addiction medicine would be today if it were not for Dr. Herbert D. Kleber contributions to the field. The Gentleman of PACE would like to express our gratitude for Dr. Kleber.

We invite you to reach out to us if you are struggling with drugs or alcohol and desire to find a new way to live. At PACE, we specialize in the treatment of males affected by use disorders and coöccurring mental illness.

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