Tag Archives: cannabis use

Cannabis Use Disorder on the Rise

cannabis

In 1996, California became the first state to legalize medical cannabis with voter approval of Proposition 215. Thus began a tidal wave of more liberal views regarding the most popular illicit drug in the country. Today, medical marijuana programs exist in 33 states, D.C. and almost all U.S. territories.

Medical cannabis effectively opened the door for recreational marijuana use campaigns to gain traction. Many states have decided to go against federal guidelines and legalize adult-use without people requiring a recommendation from a physician. Currently, 11 states and D.C. have passed laws permitting nonmedical cannabis use; California voters approved a ballot measure to legalize recreational cannabis in 2016.

If the trend continues, more states will pass legislation for both medical and recreational “pot” use. In the next decade, we may even see the drug be decriminalized federally. While ending prohibition is probably the best possible route for the country to take, it’s still important to remember that marijuana is not benign.

In recent years, legalization and decriminalization led to more research on the short and long-term effects of cannabis use. However, there is still much that scientists do not know. What is known is that the drug can wreak havoc on developing brains and carries the potential for addiction. Research appearing in The Lancet estimates that 22.1 million people suffer from cannabis dependence worldwide.

The 2017 National Survey on Drug Use and Health estimates that 1.8 million Americans 18-25 met the criteria for cannabis use disorder; the survey showed that 1.7 million Americans 26 or older have a marijuana use disorder. Nearly 4 million people had a marijuana use disorder in 2016.

Cannabis Use Disorder Rates are Concerning

Over the past two decades, the United States government has been fixated on reining in the opioid epidemic. The death toll from overdoses, millions of people actively caught in the cycle of an opioid use disorder, generations children removed from their parents; as well as, the fallout out and societal impact of the epidemic is a significant cause for concern.

While efforts to address opioid misuse and addiction must continue, we must not lose sight of the fact that millions of Americans are struggling with cannabis use. Preventing marijuana use initiation is no simple task in light of the fact that many Americans harbor misconceptions about the drug. Young people, especially those residing in permissive states, need to understand that legal doesn’t mean safe.

New research presents some startling figures about the rise of cannabis use disorder in the U.S. A study recently published in JAMA Psychiatry looked into the effect of legalization on marijuana addiction rates. Researchers analyzed survey data from 505,796 respondents; they compared use before and after the legalization of recreational marijuana. The study shows that between 2008 and 2016:

  • Cannabis use rose from 2.18% to 2.72% among Americans aged 12 to 17.
  • Frequent marijuana use increased from 2.13% to 2.62% among those 26 and older.
  • Cannabis use disorder rose from 0.90% to 1.23% among those 26 and older.

Cannabis use prevention efforts are a must. The National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) reports that those who begin using marijuana before the age of 18 are four to seven times more likely to develop a cannabis use disorder than adults.

Cannabis Effects Men and Women Differently

NIDA reports that women who use marijuana frequently develop a use disorder more quickly and are more prone to anxiety disorders. Men, on the other hand, are found to develop more severe cannabis use disorders and are prone to more antisocial personality disorders.

Cannabis use is so ubiquitous in the U.S. that many people are not even aware that they are dealing with addiction. Cannabis use disorder is marked by an inability to stop even though the drug interferes with aspects of his or her life (i.e., problems at work, school, and home).

Those who meet the criteria and attempt to stop on their own experience withdrawal symptoms. The signs of withdrawal usually begin within 24 to 48 hours of not using. The American Psychiatric Association lists the most common symptoms of withdrawal:

  • Anger, irritability, and aggressiveness
  • Heightened nervousness or anxiety
  • Insomnia
  • Decreased appetite
  • Restlessness

If you are struggling with marijuana use, and have found cessation challenging, then please reach out for professional assistance. You are not alone; more than 100,000 Americans seek treatment for cannabis use disorder each year.

California Cannabis Use Disorder Treatment for Men

At PACE Recovery Center, we specialize in developing individualized treatment plans to meet the unique needs of our clients. If you are an adult male whose life is negatively impacted by marijuana use, then we invite you to reach out to learn more about our gender-specific addiction treatment programs.

Please take the first step by calling or emailing to an admissions counselor. 800-526-1851.

Cannabis Use: A New Report

cannabisIf you live in one of the several states which have adopted legislation for medical marijuana, legalized cannabis or both, there is a good chance that you have heard several claims about the drug. While some of what you have heard was likely supported by research, the majority of claims heard about the drug were probably not grounded in science—or what could be considered credible research.

The reality is, there is more that scientists don’t know about the drug, than they do know. And what researchers think they know “now,” is often proved inaccurate by further research. Dizzying, right? This is likely the result of under researching the drug during this country’s lengthy prohibition. Decades of understanding what would have been potentially gained, were lost by 80 years of federal prohibition. Now, with state voters taking a more tolerant approach to the drug, researchers are racing to play catch-up.

It is widely agreed, when it comes to illicit drug use, marijuana is probably the safest comparably. But is it important that we differentiate between “safer” and “safe.” Just because a drug is let say, not likely to lead to an overdose, does not mean that it lacks the potential of negatively impacting your life. It is not uncommon for regular “pot” users to report problems with memory or that they have trouble functioning in certain settings.

Heavy marijuana users are susceptible to withdrawal-type symptoms during sustained abstinence. Those who become dependent on the drug are likely to continue use to avoid such discomfort. If what you have just read sounds like addiction, that is because that is precisely what it is—cannabis use disorder. Of course, marijuana addiction is an extreme example of where regular use can lead. The majority of pot smokers, whose use can be typified as being casual, will probably not find themselves in the grips of addiction down the road. That does not mean that there are no other risks to be aware of, findings that could influence one’s choice to use.

Cannabis Research: Making Sense of the Noise

In recent years, there has been much research conducted on both the potential health benefits and health penalties of cannabis use. Both advocates and opponents of the drug will introduce the findings of such research as if it were 100 percent accurate, when it is often not. Which wouldn’t be such a big deal, if the confidence in such research didn’t sway voters; who, in the end, may find they have voted against their best interest.

Making sense of it all so that we can produce informed decisions about the drug can be nerve-racking, to say the least. To make sense of the noise in deciding which research to put stock in, the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine (NASEM) sought to shine some light on the subject. The organization analyzed more than 10,700 study abstracts published in peer-reviewed journals since 1999. The conclusion of which, supports what was written above, researchers know little about the effects of marijuana use.

After looking at research, ranging from studies on marijuana's hand in mental health development, treatment of chronic pain and the drug's effect on the lungs—there was little that could be backed by substantial scientific evidence. NASEM writes:

This is a pivotal time in the world of cannabis policy and research. Shifting public sentiment, conflicting and impeded scientific research, and legislative battles have fueled the debate about what, if any, harms or benefits can be attributed to the use of cannabis or its derivatives. This report provides a broad set of evidence-based research conclusions on the health effects of cannabis and cannabinoids and puts forth recommendations to help advance the research field and better inform public health decisions.”


The report on the review of the abstracts indicated:

  • Twelve of the conclusions are supported by conclusive or substantial evidence.
  • Twenty-five are supported by moderate evidence.
  • Twenty-seven are supported by limited evidence.
  • Another 27 conclusions no or insufficient evidence.


Problem Cannabis Use

As for substance abuse, or problem cannabis use as it is often called, there is science that users should be aware. The was substantial evidence that cannabis use at an earlier age, being male and smoking cigarettes are risk factors for the development of problem cannabis use. There is substantial evidence of a statistical association between increases in cannabis use frequency and the progression to developing problem cannabis use. There is moderate evidence of a statistical association between cannabis use and the development of substance dependence and/or substance abuse disorder for substances including:

  • Alcohol
  • Tobacco
  • Other Illicit Drugs


Moving forward…

A review of research abstracts often resets the starting line for new research. This type of review is a much needed resource for scientists, as they set parameters for new studies. It is also a useful resource for addiction experts in the field of medicine and clinical therapy. NBC Nightly News’ Harry Smith presented a good overview of this study, you can see it here.

If you or a loved one are seeking treatment for marijuana addiction please reach out to our California drug abuse rehab today.

Cannabis Use: Mental Health Consequences

cannabisIn November, a number of states are likely to vote on legalizing adult cannabis use or medical marijuana programs. California is one of the states that many believe will vote in favor of legalization, two decades after it became the first state to pass medical marijuana legislation. With each year that passes, Americans seem to be more in favor of ending the 80 year prohibition that has resulted in hundreds of thousands of nonviolent drug offenders being sent to jail or prison. While it can be difficult to compare marijuana to the other illegal drugs, it is important that we have all the facts before decisions are made. Last week, Michael Botticelli, director of the White House Office of National Drug Control Policy (ONDCP), came out against legalization. The “drug czar’s” stance comes from concerns over heightened marijuana use rates among teenagers and young adults, and that cannabis can serve as a “gateway” to harder drugs. His views are in line with the President, who has arguably had the lightest stance on the drug, compared to former commander-in-chiefs. While Botticelli, who is in recovery for addiction himself, has a valid point, there are a number of people in the field of medicine who are in favor of ending the prohibition. This week, the formation of the organization Doctors for Cannabis Regulation (DFCR) was announced, the group of physicians is calling on states and the federal government to legalize and regulate the use of cannabis in the interest of public health. The group includes a former surgeon general and faculty members from some of the nation's most prestigious medical schools. The DFCR argues that legalizing and regulating marijuana is most effective way to:
  • Ensure Public Safety
  • Combat the Illicit Drug Trade
  • Mitigate the Negative Consequences Affecting Disadvantaged Communities
Both the ONDCP and DFCR make good arguments that may impact how people vote this November. However, we can also look to science for guidance on the subject. Decades of prohibition prevented scientists and health experts from conducting cannabis research. There is a lot that is unknown about the drug, such as its effect on the brain. In recent years, medical marijuana and legalization efforts have given researchers the ability to conduct long overdue research. These findings can be an invaluable resource for those considering how they will vote in the 11th hour of 2016. A group of scientists from the United States, United Kingdom, Europe and Australia raise awareness about the potential consequences of cannabis use, primarily with regard to mental health, The Guardian reports. They say that the evidence is clear, that marijuana can cause psychosis in the vulnerable. To be clear the scientists are not claiming that those who use the drug are at risk of psychosis, rather that those who are vulnerable to psychosis could jump start the illness by using marijuana. “Cannabis alone is neither necessary nor sufficient to cause psychosis.” Research published in Biological Psychiatry indicates that deterring heavy use could prevent 8-24% of psychosis cases.
It is important to educate the public about this now,” said Nora Volkow, director of National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA). “Kids who start using drugs in their teen years may never know their full potential. This is also true in relation to the risk for psychosis. The risk is significantly higher for people who begin using marijuana during adolescence. And unfortunately at this point, most people don’t know their genetic risk for psychosis or addiction.”
The use of marijuana can become an addiction, negatively impacting one’s life. If you are addicted to marijuana, please contact PACE Recovery Center for help. Our drug abuse treatment program specializes in developing individualized treatment plans to meet the unique needs of all our clients.

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